The generic computer contains input devices, a computational unit, and output devices. The computational unit is the computer’s heart, and usually consists of a central processing unit (CPU), a memory, an input/output (I/O) interface and other important components. To get a better understanding of computer organization, a brief overview of the computer’s organization is given in the flowing.
We build computer to solve problems. Early computer solved mathematical and engineering problems, and later computers emphasized information processing for business applications. Today, computers also control machines as diverse as automobile
engines, robots, and microwave ovens. A computer system solves a problem from any of these domains by accepting input, processing it, and producing output. Computer systems consist of hardware and software. Hardware is the physical part of the system. Once designed, hardware is difficult and expensive to change. Software is the set of programs that instruct the hardware and is easier to modify than hardware. Computers are valuable because they are general-purpose machines that can solve many different kinds of problems, as opposed to special-purpose machines that can each solve only one kind of problem. Different problems can be solved with the same hardware by supplying the system with a different set of instructions, that is, with different software. Every computer has four basic hardware components: input devices, output devices, main memory, and central processing unit (CPU).
The lines between the blocks represent the flow of information flows from one component to another on the bus, which is simply a group of wires connecting the components. Processing occurs in the CPU and main memory. The organization with the components connected to each other by the bus, is common. However, other configurations are possible as well. Just the CPU of a mainframe often occupies an entire cabinet. Its input/output (I/O) devices and memory might fill an entire room. Microcomputers can be small enough to fit on a desk or in a briefcase. As technology advances, the amount of processing previously possible only on large machines becomes possible on smaller machines. Microcomputers now can do much of the work that only minicomputers or mainframes could do in the past.
一般計算機包含輸入設備，計算單元，和輸出設備。計算單元是計算機的心臟，通常包括一個中央處理單元(CPU)， 存儲器，輸入/輸出(I/O) 接口和其他重要的組成部分。為了更好地了解計算機組成，下面簡要概述了計算機的組成。
模塊之間的連線代表信息流通過總線從一個組件流入到另一個組件的流向，總線只不過是連接組成部分的一組電線。信息處理發生在 CPU 和主存儲器。組件之間通常是通過總線彼此相連的。然而，其他配置也是可能的。大型主機的 CPU 主機往往占據整個櫥柜。它的輸入/輸出(I/O)設備和內存也可能填滿整個房間。微型計算機可以足夠小，適合于辦公桌或公文包里。隨著技術的進步，以前只能在大型機上的處理數據量現在小型機上變為可能。微機現在可以做許多以前只有小型機或大型機可以做的工作。